While preparing at Chamkaur Sahib, Guru Gobind Singh had this message to his forty Singhs. ਅਬਿ ਤੋ ਉਪਾਇ ਸਾਮ ਦਾਮ ਭੇਦ ਬਨੈ ਨਹਿ, ਚੌਥੇ ਦੰਡ ਬਨੈ ਦਲ ਲਾਖੋਂ ਚੜਿ ਆਯੋ ਹੈ ॥ "Now the strategies of Saam, Daam, Bhed *explained below*, will not work; only the fourth, Dand is of use, as an army thousands of is mounted against us. ਗੀਦਰ ਕੀ ਮੌਤ ਨਹਿਂ ਮਰੋ ਰਿਪੁ ਹਾਥਨਿ ਤੇ, ਕਰੋ ਜੁੱਧ ਗਾਢੋ ਜਿਮ ਪੂਰਬ ਮਚਾਯੋ ਹੈ ॥ Dying like a jackal *coward* is not acceptable, but kill these enemies with your hands; like you have fought in the past, with *that same ferociousness* fight now!" Gurpratap [[Suraj]] Prakash, Rut 6, Chapter 35 These four strategies are outlined in numerous Indic texts, from Chanakya to the Mahabharata. Saam (ਸਾਮ) refers dealing with the opposing side in good terms, either working them in cooperation or friendly negotiating, taking them in under one's protection. Daam (ਦਾਮ) refers to providing the opposing side with monetary or other goods in an effort to attain some benefit. Bhed (ਭੇਦ) refers to splitting the opposing side through a variety of different means; supporting internal factions, creating confusion within their territory etc. Dand (ਦੰਡ) refers to the stick, meaning military posturing and action.